Step-by-Step Guide to Economic Value Added

Measuring the true economic profit of a company is vital for determining its financial health and efficiency, and that’s where Economic Value Added (EVA) comes in. The concept of EVA is gaining widespread recognition and acceptance as an effective performance measurement tool.
The Step-by-Step Guide to Economic Value Added (EVA) provides a comprehensive guide. It helps you to understand and implement EVA in your business with precision.

Understanding the Basics of EVA

EVA calculation involves subtracting a company’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC) from its net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT). WACC represents the average cost of all the capital that a company has raised, including equity and debt, and it takes into account the cost of each source of capital and its proportional weight.

The mathematical formula for EVA is straightforward: EVA = NOPAT – WACC

A positive EVA signifies that a company is generating more profit than the cost of its capital and, therefore, creating value for its shareholders. On the other hand, a negative EVA suggests that a company is not generating sufficient profit to cover the cost of its capital and is destroying value.

Benefits of Implementing Economic Value Added (EVA)

The Step-by-Step Guide to Economic Value Added provides you a more comprehensive analysis of a financial health. Here are the key benefits of incorporating EVA in your organization:

Improved decision-making

EVA provides a transparent and concise measurement of a company’s financial performance, making it easier for decision-makers to comprehend how their choices are impacting the bottom line. This leads to informed decisions and improved financial outcomes.

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Aligned incentives

By utilizing EVA, companies can align their employees’ incentives with the company’s financial goals, ensuring that everyone is working towards the same objective and fostering a more cohesive and motivated workforce.

Better understanding of risk

EVA assists companies in comprehending the financial implications of their decisions, leading to improved risk management and reduced financial missteps.

Increased transparency

EVA offers a clear and easy-to-understand measurement of a company’s financial performance, helping to build trust with stakeholders such as shareholders, employees, and customers.

Improved shareholder value

By making informed decisions with the help of EVA, companies can improve their financial performance and ultimately increase shareholder value, leading to higher stock prices, increased dividend payments, and a stronger overall financial position.

Economic Value Added Formular
Economic Value Added Formular

What is NOPAT?

Net Operating Profit After Taxes (NOPAT) is a financial metric that evaluates a company’s operational efficiency and performance. NOPAT measures the profit generated by a company after accounting for taxes and other operating expenses, excluding the cost of capital.

NOPAT is considered a more precise indicator of a company’s performance than the net income or earnings per share (EPS). It eliminates the impact of financing and tax decisions from the equation, providing a more accurate representation of efficiency.

By analyzing NOPAT, businesses can make more informed decisions and gain a better understanding of their financial standing.

What is WACC?

The Weighted Average Cost of Capital, better known as WACC, is a crucial financial indicator that calculates the average expense of a company’s capital. It encompasses both equity and debt capital. It also take into account the respective cost of each type of capital and their relative weights.

WACC provides an assessment of the total cost of funds a company must incur to finance its operations and plays a significant role in determining a company’s cost of capital. A high WACC value indicates that a company faces a higher cost to raise capital. This could impact its financial performance and profitability.

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The Significance of WACC in EVA

In the context of Economic Value Added (EVA), WACC serves as the discount rate in determining the present value of future cash flows. This rate reflects the required return by investors to compensate for the risk associated with the investment. By incorporating WACC as the discount rate, EVA offers a more accurate representation of a company’s financial performance and profitability.

Calculating NOPAT

To compute EVA, the first step is to determine NOPAT, which is the profit a company generates from its operations after deducting all taxes. To determine NOPAT, follow these steps:

  1. Determine the company’s pre-tax operating profit.
  2. Deduct all taxes owed.

For instance, if a company generates a pre-tax operating profit of $100,000 and owes $20,000 in taxes, its NOPAT would be $80,000.

Determining WACC

The second step in computing EVA is to calculate WACC. The steps to determine WACC are:

  1. Identify the cost of each source of capital, including equity and debt.
  2. Calculate the weight of each source of capital.
  3. Determine the weighted average of the cost of capital.

For instance, if a company has $50,000 in equity and $50,000 in debt, with a cost of equity of 10% and a cost of debt of 5%, its WACC would be 7.5%.

Interpreting EVA Results

Once EVA is calculated, you can use it to evaluate your company’s overall financial performance. A positive EVA suggests that your company generates more profit than the cost of its capital. This creates value for its shareholders. Conversely, a negative EVA indicates that your company is not generating enough profit to cover the cost of its capital, leading to value destruction.

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The Limitations of Using EVA for Financial Analysis

While EVA is a crucial instrument for assessing a company’s financial state, it also has a few drawbacks to consider. It is important to comprehend these constraints to properly comprehend EVA and implement it suitably for financial analysis. Here are some of the major limitations of EVA:


EVA involves a complicated financial metric that requires an in-depth knowledge of finance and accounting principles. This can make it challenging for some individuals, particularly those with limited financial proficiency, to properly understand EVA.


The computation of EVA necessitates making numerous assumptions, such as the cost of capital, which can be open to interpretation and subjective. This can result in fluctuations in the calculation of EVA and potentially compromise the accuracy of the results.

Limited Time Horizon

EVA provides an overview of a company’s financial standing over a specific duration. Though it can be useful for evaluating a company’s short-term financial performance, it may not accurately reflect the company’s financial performance over a longer time frame.

Limited Use in Comparing Companies

EVA is mainly used to evaluate a single company’s financial performance. Although it can be helpful for comparing a company’s financial performance over time, it may not be as practical for comparing the financial performance of various companies.


Economic Value Added (EVA) is a financial metric that evaluates a company’s financial performance and profitability. By analyzing NOPAT and WACC, EVA provides a thorough and precise portrayal of a company’s financial performance. EVA makes it a valuable resource for investors, analysts, and management.

In the Step-by-Step Guide to Economic Value Added (EVA), we have delved into the essence of Economic Value Added, including what NOPAT and WACC are. We have also spotlighted the importance of EVA as a financial metric.

In summary, Economic Value Added is a potent tool that furnishes valuable insights into a company’s financial performance and profitability. Whether you are an investor, analyst, or management, comprehending and utilizing EVA can aid you in making more informed decisions.

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